114/ Ladies Artists who depicted Aphrodite/Venus (VI): French girls artists

On this present day it’s time to replace this blog-series (see beneath the checklist of posts) with the French girls artists compiled within the newest model of My Mission : Digital Analysis Assortment of the Iconography of Venus from the Center Ages to Trendy Occasions.  

Topical Catalogue Vol. 2.1 The French Venus, revealed in 2009, counted solely 50 girls artists (see their names in checklist of posts beneath: March 6, 2011 7/ Ladies Artists who depicted Aphrodite/Venus (I))  on a complete of 977 artists. The continuing compilation in model 2.1.5 added 183 girls artists  on a complete of 2348 artists (1). The outstanding anomaly of very excessive numbers within the intervals 1860-99 is linked to a widely known art-historical hype.

Little question, the rise from 1960 onwards is expounded to growing entry to digitized sources and the decanonization of artwork historical past described as a strategy of “customers’ interactions with cultural content material on the WEB (2). Within the final many years, artists current their work, not solely in galleries or exhibitions, however repeatedly on web with specialised promoting websites or by their very own WEB-site. 

Determine 1 Numbers of French girls artists counted in intervals of 20 years from 1620 onwards

The irregularity in interval 1860-79, and partly additionally in 1880-99, can solely be understood if artists anticipated to be extra profitable – and to earn extra money –  when depicting Venus.

That is unquestionably linked to the hype created by the  portray ‘Naissance de Vénus’ (oil on canvas, 130 x 225 cm, exhibited within the Salon of 1863 by Alexandre CABANEL (1823-1889 ), purchased by Napoléon III, now within the Musée d’Orsay in Paris. 

It was copied 27 occasions inside 28 years by 23 French artists, of whom 13 girls artists may very well be recognized till now. Lots of them exhibited their copies within the Salons de Paris. 

The hype elevated when Eduard MANET (1832-1883) exhibited two years later his well-known portray: ‘Olympia ou la Vénus au chat’ (oil on canvas, 130,5×190 cm), additionally now within the Musée d’Orsay in Paris. It was very a lot commented within the press and by artwork critics similar to Charles Baudelaire.

Although MANET himself disseminated his portray with engravings (3), no girl artist made a replica.


There have been a number of different painters in these intervals who depicted Venus (e.g. Eugène-Emmanuel AMAURY-DUVAL La naissance de Vénus 1862, Charles CHAPLIN Vénus sortant de l’onde’ 1865, William- Adolphe BOUGUEREAU La naissance de Vénus’ 1879) and contributed to the hype. And in addition François BOUCHER together with his ample Venus work was usually imitated in these intervals (4), in addition to BOTTICELLI’s ’Start of Venus’ as quickly as copies turned obtainable (5).

The caricaturist Honoré DAUMIER (1808-1879) interpreted the mania completely with two cartoons within the widespread journal Le Charivari.



* DAUMIER 01.04.1864: Vue d’un atelier la dernière semaine avant l’exposition “S’ils ne sont pas contens de cette Vénus…, (…)…. mais pourvu qu’elle soit sèche, mon Dieu! – Qu’est-ce que ça fait qu’elle soit sèche puisque c’est Vénus sortant de l’onde….”

* DAUMIER 10.5.1865: Croquis pris au Salon “Cette année encore des Vénus… toujours des Vénus ! … comme s’il y avait des femmes faites comme ça ! …”.





Additionally CHAM, pseudonym of Amédée Charles Henri, Comte de NOÉ (1819-1879) revealed cartoons in Le Chiavari, commenting the Salons. Some examples beneath.

* CHAM 1865 Salon de Paris n°1428 


·       CHAM Au Salon de 1866 n°1470 

 “Vénus furieuse contre M.Otin qui lui a échangé les cheveux contre du macaroni. On ne fait pas de ces tours-là” (portray by L.A. OTTIN, Swiss)


 CHAM Au Salon de 1877 n°2191 Vénus échangerait bien tous ces amours contre un coiffeur’  (portray by F ZUBER-BUHLER, Swiss)


The ladies artists in these intervals 1860-99 had been usually miniaturists and painted on porcelain or ceramic. Sadly, apparently only a few works have survived. The one picture obtainable, so far as the writer is aware of, is by Mlle FORTIN. It was bought by the State and attributed in 1875 to the museum of Nièvre (Nevers) (6).


La Naissance de Vénus, d’après M. Cabanel ; porcelaine Salon 1872 n°375 Auteur: Cool (Mme, de) [Arnould de Cool, Fortin (Mlle)] née à 1830 Limoges, Élève de M. A. Poitevin”.

See earlier posts:

* August 6, 2011 7/ ‘Women Artists who depicted Aphrodite/Venus (I)’ which listed 69 girls artists from Italy, France and the Low International locations;

* November 3, 2012‘Women Artists who depicted Aphrodite/Venus (II)’ which listed 93 girls artists from Germany, Switzerland and Central European International locations;

* March 8, 2014 ‘Women Artists who depicted Aphrodite/Venus (III)’ which listed 72 girls artists from Nice Britain and Eire.

* November 27, 2014 “Ladies Artists who depicted Aphrodite/Venus (IV): the abstract”

* January 13, 2019  84/ Ladies Artists who depicted Aphrodite/Venus (V): the Italian replace


1.     Each the unique model Vol. 2.1 The French Venus, revealed in 2009, and the revised version 2.1.5 of 2022 can be found in academia.edu. Meta-data of all works cited or mentioned on this submit will be retrieved within the pdfs.

2.     See ‘Canon, Value, and Cultural Heritage: New Processes of Assigning Value in the Postdigital Realm’ by Nuria Rodríguez-Ortega (Historia del Arte, Universidad de Málaga) in Multimodal Applied sciences Work together, Might 11, 2018, the place social decanonization is described as a strategy of “customers’ interactions with cultural content material on the net or by digital means (…) with the potential to redirect consideration towards a wider spectrum of cultural manufacturing than was thought-about by historic canons.”

3.     For example in an article of 1867 ‘Éd. Manet : étude biographique et critique’ by Émile Zola.

4.     See submit of February 24, 2022 89/ François BOUCHER: the Rococo Celebrity of the 18th century and his ImitatorsFig. 2 Cumulative variety of artworks depicting Venus by Imitators of François BOUCHER from 1733 to 1920 the place the quantity stays fixed from 1803 to 1859 after which rises once more repeatedly.

5.     The Arundel Society in London revealed a chromolithograph in 1870.

6.     Supply: F/21/7642 (*) folio 19 [photos des salons] Base Mistral/Arcade

The identical (?) work was once more exhibited in Salon 1873, n°346  as an ‘émail’. A Limoges porcelain plaque signed Delphine de Cool signed and dated 1872 within the decrease left, entitled ‘Venus floating on the waves’ 24,1×40,6 cm, was on public sale at Artbay’s, El Monte, CA, US, on September 7, 2019, lot nr 112.

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